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Tending the Mind Garden Part 1:

You can’t spell Winter without Win

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No winter lasts forever, no spring skips its turn”

Hal Borland

I have no idea who Hal Borland is but I’m sure he’d be proud his quote finally made it into The Beartaria Times.

I’m feeling very motivated and uplifted as winter comes to a close, and would like to share some of that with you. For context, I’ll get you caught up on just a little bit of what’s been going on in my life this last year. This is going to be a 2 maybe 3 part series about cultivating an anti-fragile mentality starting at the very ground level where all tricks begin: The mind. I’ll share some methods you can use to help get your thoughts and spirit in order. The journey may be difficult, but your attitude will turn that into a win every time. My intention is that you find at least one or two golden nuggets from this and can apply them immediately to your life.

The One Man Board Room

I have recently started a profitable local small business with no money in the middle of winter in Wyoming. It’s a handyman business and is something many handy Bears who require money or a different job could start. As my unemployment money ran out and my savings dwindled, the pucker factor was high. Without hesitating, I created a rough business plan on the fly, and began making a website and setting up the business back end. This included social media pages, logo design, payment processing, and so on.

The business launched in December 2020. I had done minimal market research but was certain my skills with home repairs and remodeling were in demand in my area. Almost immediately I felt the doubts and fears weighing heavily on me. As the last of my savings dwindled, I was considering how many squirrels I could convince my girlfriend to eat. Squirrels are free, organic, and have a largely vegan diet which I’m sure any health conscious homeless people can appreciate. Thankfully it hasn’t come to that yet. With this stress pushed to the back of my mind I kept leaning into the tasks I needed to get done. Just one step forward, and then the next. I am reminded of my time in some of the more difficult military schools I’ve attended. You must win in your mind first in order to survive the harsh training. Any negative thought that rises must be dealt with quickly.

Note: Negativity is the energy you put on a situation or problem that needs to be addressed. For example: If you’re feeling crushed or weighed down emotionally when you get a flat tire, YOU respond with that energy and YOU need to learn to shift out of feeling bad (i.e. afraid, worried, despair) when problems pop up. Instead, you must cultivate the ability to keep a good attitude when dealing with problems. Having a sense of humor about it, and making a decision carefully but QUICKLY to solve the problem are a must.

Keep Your Mind Fertile

Just as the height of my anxiety kicked in, I reached out to Heaven in gratitude and really began to relax and let go. This happened almost in a flash. I felt the fear fall away and then the phone started to ring and jobs started to come to me. I leaned further on my faith and became increasingly grateful for the abundance that God has already blessed me with and will continue to bless me with in the future. It was important for me to keep my mind “fertile” with gratitude and a winning attitude. I felt like God had realigned my spirit with the path he has laid out for me. You must seek the Creator and humble yourself to His will for this to work for you long term.

This spiritual “re-centering” came at the exact time it was supposed to. It always does.

I am always grateful for the times the Heavenly Father has graciously given me clear help and inspiration. The point I want to drive home is that for you to win, you have to be active on the field. It’s much like when your car breaks down in the middle of the road and a kind stranger shows up suddenly and starts pushing your car. When that happens, the right thing to do is get out and help push while taking the wheel and guiding the car to safety. Like the kind stranger, God will do His part, and you should do your best to help even if it’s just as a gesture of gratitude.

Two are better than One

“Who can find a virtuous woman? For her price is far above rubies. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil. She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.

Psalm 31: 10-12

One key element that I know Creator God brought into my life exactly when He knew I would need it, was the calm, positive presence of my girlfriend (Blonde Genius Bear). Having a good partner who understands this battle of the mind is such a blessing.

When life throws hot oil at you, make fried chicken!

Nighthawk Bear (while attacking a castle, no doubt)

For those of you in relationships, it’s a good idea to really take this to heart and help coach one another when you’re undergoing a rigorous time of growth. Like a spotter in the gym, your significant other is there to help you shoulder the weight and keep moving. It’s really beautiful to experience. I wish this for all of you.

Healthy, Holy and Whole

The specific things I do to help “push my car” are a pretty standard part of treating my mind, body, and soul holistically.

The word Holistic comes from the Greek word holos or “whole.” Interestingly, I believe the word “Holy” also comes from this same root. To be Holy, is to be healthy and whole. If your mind or spirit is feeling downtrodden or you can’t shake some doubts and fears (or worse), you may have a “Soul Cold” and need to detox.

I won’t fully discuss every possible part of a good soul detox otherwise you’ll be reading this until NEXT winter. So, for the sake of time, I will list a quick checklist of the basics so you can self-assess that you’re at least not actively poisoning your own spirit with the following:

Soul Detox

In holistic healing, the first step is to STOP POISONING YOURSELF. This goes for your mind and soul as well. This is a super critical part of tending your mind garden.

  • Stop watching the news, and movies/shows (Stop wasting time. It’s ok to cut loose a little bit every now and then, but if you’re watching movies every weekend, and bingeing on TV shows, you’re doing yourself and your community a disservice).
  • Repent (meaning “turn away from”) any unhealthy or dishonorable or “bad” behavior (drunkenness, unfaithfulness, the “big 10”, etc)
  • Forgive any wrongs done to you (easier said than done but this is a MUST)
  • Monitor your “self talk” for anything overtly negative and even destructive
  • Focus on gratitude (more on this later)
  • Clean up your diet one item at a time (Clean eating is a must. You don’t have to do it all right away, but begin making progress, learning about this NOW)

Changing your life is a constant process. You’re either improving, or you are sliding down hill. You never stay the same. Don’t worry if you feel behind on making these changes. Make the commitment to start now. Don’t stare too long on the past. Remember that a small changes done consistently (this is KEY) over time, will lead to monumental progress when you look back even 2 years from now. There are volumes of examples I could write on this, but this will give you the building blocks to begin your personal lifestyle shift if you need one.

Recap

You are not on your own in making your life better or overcoming challenges, but you are responsible for taking action and doing the work of moving forward. If you stay in motion, and seek the path of the Creator, you will be fine. If you stop moving forward, or get too bogged down by unhealthy influences in your mind or body (most importantly the MIND) you will stumble. That’s ok, just work on stumbling less and cleaning up your life.

Remember this (you have no excuse to feel “surprised” once you know this): Even after you feel like you’ve mastered basics, you will still reach incredibly difficult times in your life where you’ll wonder “what did I get myself into.” That’s ok, that part is called Growth. Lean into it, and focus on being grateful for your life and the blessings in it. I will write more on the actual practical application of gratitude in the near future. It’s almost as if it’s a jet fuel of sorts that will fuel your ability to recover from punches that life throws at you.

Until next time, turn that hat backwards, turn into the wind, and slap a huge grin on your face. The wind brings change. For those who have the courage to go and see what’s out there, may the change ever be in your favor.

Lifestyle

Sometimes you have to take quality into your own hands.

But it took several visits to different BBQ joints for my wife and me to realize that most places could have been better.

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By: Chile.Bear.de

I like to grill. I’ll man the BBQ for free. I’ll smoke whatever meat I can get my hands on. But it took several visits to different BBQ joints for my wife and me to realize that most places could have been better. Our tastes had improved. We hadn’t gotten better, per se. We started recognizing that most of this could have been better executed.

Take BBQ sauce, for example. Look at the ingredients list on the back. The first ingredient is often corn syrup. Behind it is a bunch of other stuff you don’t exactly want in your body, Dextrose, maltodextrin, and other big words that don’t compare to real food. This realization was enough for me to figure out my own sauce recipe, one that’s only four ingredients, and they are ingredients I can control the quality of.

The source of your meat is important, naturally. Higher quality meat will affect more than the flavor on your plate. It also affects the cook: how long and hot you can run the grill. This I learned the hard way with a feedlot brisket instead of proper, pasture-raised beef. There wasn’t enough fat to protect the meat, and it burned.

The quality of seasonings is essential. You need to know what you’re coating your food with. But it doesn’t have to be the most expensive brand. Some of my tastiest steaks were seasoned with the cheapest garlic salts.

For smoking meats, wood pairing is more important than people realize. I find that smoking beef over hickory is pure heresy. People swear by it, but it objectively tastes worse than using oak or mesquite instead.

“Hickory is what we’ve always done,” I’ve heard people say. They simply do not know any other way.

“Quality” isn’t just part of a job title. An instructor phrased the word as “having a taste for quality.” Understanding your sense of taste takes time and heartbreak. It takes getting to know under and over seasoning. It takes intentionally under and overcooking food. It takes knowing the lower and upper limits. It takes learning right and wrong methods. With these, we can properly hone in on quality.

It’s not good to taste something and immediately give it an 11 out of 10. That’s the phrase I use to describe something that’s THE BEST one’s ever had. It’s not a victory. It means the taster has yet to learn how good food can really get. So when someone tells me my food is just an eight or a six out of ten, I listen hard: I’m about to learn something new.

Quality is used to describe tools, watches, fine glassware, etc. Quality is not limited to physical objects, though. It affects what we consume: our digestion and what we see and hear. The movies and music we consume affect us too, ya know.

Quality is a state of mind, a habit that affects our very behavior. As we hone better quality within, so will we find and create better quality around us.

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Lifestyle

Making Your First Sourdough Is Easier Than You Think…

After 93 days in Sourdough Land —making 500 loaves, 100 croissants, and 200 cinnamon buns, I’ve learned it’s really not as difficult as you might think. Once you wrap your head around a few concepts, do it a few times in a row, it all starts to make sense. Let me show you…

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By: Filipina Bear

Hi, my name is Roselle, AKA Filipina Bear.

Back in Sept 2022, I decided to go “all-in” on baking everything naturally —meaning, leavening bread only with a sourdough starter and not instant yeast or active yeast bought from a store.

The road to mastery is paved with failure —I know that already. But I wanted to get good fast. I just wanted it to be like second nature. Mainly because I wanted to make everything from scratch for my family. You just can’t fully trust what you buy at the store at all.

To master something in a short period of time, you need to fail fast and often.

If it were three years ago, I’d have staged (an unpaid internship) at some local bakeries. A month of baking 100 loaves a day will hone your skills fast!

But I’m a mom now, and I need to be able to control my schedule. I can’t just take off to bake bread all day.

So I did the next best thing.

I did the max I could do with the equipment I had in my tiny kitchen.

I baked 4-6 loaves of sourdough every day. Lots of trial and error. Lots of lessons learned —what to do, what not to do, what I could do next time, etc.

There’s a lot of ground to cover, but I’ll keep it as concise as I can for my first article here.

Let’s get started.

The sourdough process

In the simplest explanation, sourdough bread baking is just mixing your dry ingredients in with your wet, let it ferment until it’s almost double in size, shape it and then bake it.

This is literally what the “no-knead” or “overnight” method is.

It’s the lazy man’s sourdough —where you mix everything and don’t do anything until the very end.

If you choose to make bread this way, that’s literally all there is —mix, wait, shape and bake.

Is it too good to be true? Lazy-man’s sourdough?

You can take your chances with the no-knead / overnight method. It’s worthwhile to do it at least once.

But just like everything in life, nothing is as easy as it seems. There is no free lunch.

If you can make the “no-knead” or “overnight” sourdough method work for you —more power to you!

I would do it if you’re in a pinch and need bread but don’t have time to do all the steps.

If you want to know the full process in detail, please continue onto my new website, where I give you step-by-step instructions, including detailed pics and videos:

Click here -> How To Make Sourdough Bread

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Lifestyle

How to Survive the Winter… Literally

This piece will serve to familiarize the reader with the signs, symptoms, and treatments of these common, sometimes deadly winter afflictions, as well as the importance of preparedness and proper training in recognizing and treating them early.

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It’s the Most Wonderful Time of the Year…To Suffer a Cold Injury
Recognition, Prevention and Treatment of Common Cold-Weather Medical Emergencies

By: Patrick Norton of ARTOS Survival


Right around this time of year, bears of all types are heading out into the wilderness to partake in their favorite winter sports. Be it hunting, skiing, snowboarding, snowshoeing, or snowmobiling, the risk of suffering a cold injury greatly increases in the late fall, summer, and early spring months. Bear in mind that snow and freezing temperatures are not required for one to experience a cold-related emergency. Even in warmer climates, especially in places such as the desert or at sea, where drastic temperature drops are common at night or during and after a submersion incident, hypothermia, frostbite, or non-freezing cold injury can also occur. This piece will serve to familiarize the reader with the signs, symptoms, and treatments of these common, sometimes deadly winter afflictions, as well as the importance of preparedness and proper training in recognizing and treating them early.

First, it is crucial to have a baseline understanding of the physiology of heat production and heat loss in the human body. There are three ways the body can produce heat on its own: resting metabolism, exercise, and shivering. When the body is given energy as food, chemical reactions take place to convert energy to power the mechanisms that keep it alive and allow it to work. One of these energy conversions is turning the potential energy in food to heat energy. This resting metabolic rate will increase a bit in cold conditions, but it does not provide enough heat to sustain life in winter weather. The second form of heat production is physical exercise. Exercise is a great heat producer, whether through short bursts of intense exercise or constant, moderate motion. Exercise does have some constraints and concerns, however, that need to be considered. Athletic ability, conditioning, stamina, and endurance, as well as the availability of energy in the form of food and water, are limitations for exercise. Sweat production is another concern associated with cold injury. These highlight the importance of physical fitness, acclimatization, proper nutrition and hydration, effective winter clothing and layering, and activity regulation, which will all be addressed later. The last physiological method of heat production is shivering. Yes, shivering is a mechanism for the body to create heat, not just a symptom of hypothermia. Shivering will be addressed more later in the hypothermia sections of this article, but essentially shivering is a response to a drop in core body temperature that creates heat at a rate of approximately five times that of resting metabolism. Again, this form of heat production is fed by food, water, and oxygen. Shivering also decreases dexterity, hindering the victim’s ability to perform essential tasks required to keep warm in the first place. This will bring us to the importance of preparedness and prevention of heat loss, but first, a crash course on the forms of heat loss.

There are four types of heat loss that occur in cold environments: conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. Conduction is heat transfer through direct contact, for example, body heat transferring to the rock one may be sitting on. Convection can be thought of as heat loss due to air passing over the patient. Radiation is the indirect transfer of heat from a hot to a cold object. Heat is also lost through evaporation, either by sweating or breathing. To maintain adequate body temperature, it is imperative that the outdoorsman mitigate heat loss from all three forms of heat transfer and evaporation. When this is combined with proper nutrition, hydration, and activity regulation, the chances of avoiding cold injury will greatly improve.

The most important thing to do to fight hypothermia and other cold injuries is to establish preventative measures to ensure it does not happen in the first place.

In order to be prepared, one must also carry the proper gear and supplies, research the area’s conditions, acclimate to the environment and make a solid plan for the trip and for possible emergencies. Also, before the wilderness enthusiast even leaves the house, he must train! This training includes learning effective and efficient wilderness living, survival, and medical skills such as camp, shelter, and fire building, camp cooking skills, proper wilderness layering, smart activity regulation, and wilderness first aid (WFA). All too often, many people go out thinking they know exactly what to do because they have either been hunting or snowmobiling for so long that they automatically have gained survival or medical skills through osmosis, or they have watched enough hours of YouTube to know it all. This is not the case! Assume you will not rise to the occasion when an emergency happens. In general, these are the people that get into critical situations or die, whether due to cold injury or something else. Take the time to learn proper skills. Teaching all of these skills is beyond the scope of this piece, but learning to make effective shelter and fire quickly, efficiently, and safely. Learn to properly layer and regulate exercise.

The most effective and easy way to layer is the modular, three-layer system. This includes a form-fitting, moisture-wicking base layer of wool or synthetic fabric; wool is preferred in the author’s opinion because it does not become stinky due to sweating. The second piece of this system is an insulating layer, also of wool or synthetic material. Down layers are acceptable only in dry cold. This layer should not be too tight; the idea is to hold heat in the negative airspace of the fabric. The final layer is a breathable, waterproof shell. Gore-Tex is preferred, but there are other materials that do the trick as well. The purpose of this layer is to protect the wearer from wind and water while allowing the other layers to breathe and expel any moisture that has built up. Do not forget to also wear warm headwear, footwear, and hand-wear. Do not over-tighten footwear, as this can inhibit circulation to the feet and toes. The following is a simple example of how to employ this modular system along with proper exercise management. Imagine a snowshoer wearing this three-layer system at the bottom of a fairly steep slope. The next step in the expedition is to get to the top. The wearer is fairly certain that he will create heat through the exercise required to get to the top, so he sheds his middle, insulating layer. He begins to climb but maintains a moderate level of exertion using a steady pace, following a switchback pattern up the hill rather than forging straight up the hill as fast as he can to mitigate sweat production, which could freeze or increase his chances of hypothermia or other cold injuries. If the hill climb is quite long, he can take frequent rests as he begins to feel himself start to sweat or overexert. Certainly, by the time he gets to the top, he will want to take a good rest, eventually donning the insulating layer again before cooling off too much. This is an easy-to-follow example, but it is important to be strategic and diligent, no matter how complex the scenario is.

In concluding the topic of prevention, adequately fueling the body is required to perform exercise and simple tasks and to power the metabolic heat production mechanisms addressed earlier in this article. Be sure food is consumed regularly, in proper amounts, and according to the intensity of activity. Remember, food intake should be increased in colder environments, whether intense exercise is involved or not. Carbohydrates are converted into kinetic and heat energy very quickly, which is likened to tinder in fire building. Fats and proteins will provide more sustained energy, comparable to larger pieces of firewood. Lastly, proper hydration is of the utmost importance to prevent not only heat injury but cold injury as well. It allows for adequate perfusion to supply oxygen and nutrients to the cells and to circulate warm blood to the vital organs and extremities. Pre-hydrate before activity and hydrate often during activity. Make sure to have electrolytes available so the body can absorb the water it is supplied. Under normal circumstances, food provides the body with enough electrolytes, but under strenuous activity, the rule of thumb is one liter of electrolyte replacement for every two liters of regular water.

If these measures fail, cold injuries may happen. There are different types of cold injuries, and each has different levels of severity. Cold injury may also occur in conjunction with other injuries. This is why in a wilderness setting, the primary patient assessment not only includes airway, breathing, and circulation assessment and intervention but spinal disability and environmental measures as well. It is recommended to take a WFA course, at minimum, to learn to properly carry out a patient assessment, which every patient deserves. The first type of cold injury is hypothermia.

The key to treating hypothermia is to recognize the signs and symptoms early and treat them immediately.

The signs and symptoms of hypothermia vary depending on severity. These include shivering, goosebumps, loss of fine motor function, stiff extremities, clumsiness, poor decision-making, and confusion for mild hypothermia. When these symptoms increase and the patient begins to become more uncoordinated, including an altered gait and falling, and begins presenting signs of obvious mental status changes, the patient is considered to have moderate hypothermia. These symptoms are often called “the umbles” or stumbles, fumbles, and mumbles. To treat mild and moderate hypothermia, dry the patient, dress him in warm clothing, move him to a warmer location protected from wind, and encourage movement if possible. In moderate cases, the patient may need to be put in a sleeping bag with an insulating pad between him and the ground. The patient should be given warm drinks with plenty of sugar if he can swallow. The caregiver should also put hot, but not scalding, water bottles or chemical heat packs on critical places such as the torso, back, armpits, and groin, with a layer of clothing in between. Once the patient is warmed, he may begin to have solid food such as candy or energy bars progressing to full meals with fats and protein. Fires with a reflector wall or space blanket will also help rewarm the patient. Most times, rewarming a mildly hypothermic patient can be done in the field, and the patient may continue the trip once ready. In moderate cases, this becomes more difficult but can still be attainable. Keep in mind the rewarming process may take a long time and may not always succeed in the field. Be persistent and do not allow for any more heat loss.

If hypothermia progresses, the patient may stop shivering due to energy depletion and show a profound decrease in mental status, muscle rigidity, and lowered heart and respiratory rate. This is severe, or profound, hypothermia, a life-threatening condition. The patient likely will not be able to swallow, so giving warm drinks and food will not be possible. In cases of moderate or severe hypothermia, the patient should be put in a hypothermia wrap (hypo-wrap) or “hypo-burrito .”Many useful modifications can be made to improve the hypo-wrap, and it can be viewed online or learned in a wilderness medicine course. However, the basic principles of the hypo-wrap remain the same in all iterations. Begin by heating water bottles or activating chemical heat packs. Lay the patient down on a large, waterproof sheet, such as a plastic tarp or drop cloth. Put the patient in at least one sleeping bag or wrap them in blankets with an insulating pad underneath. Place the bottles or heat packs in the critical areas mentioned above, including by the feet. Finally, wrap the patient in the waterproof sheeting tucking the edges under the patient to keep warmth inside the wrap. A cloth or scarf may be placed over the patient’s mouth to prevent evaporative heat loss. The photos in this article show how this should look. When handling this patient, be very gentle so as not to cause cold blood to circulate to the heart. This may cause a life-threatening heart arrhythmia. Keep in mind that the patient’s pulse and respiratory rate may be difficult to detect, so go slow with the assessment. If they are absent, CPR may be performed. However, when in doubt, give only rescue breaths. Due to the preservative nature of cold, the patient may appear deceased, but given in-hospital warming and resuscitation care, many patients do survive. Remember: “the patient is not dead until he is warm and dead.” In most cases of mild or moderate hypothermia, evacuation is generally not necessary, and the patient can be rewarmed and continue acting as long as their mental status returns to normal. With severe hypothermia and some cases of moderate hypothermia, the patient should be quickly and gently evacuated to a higher level of care.

Frostbite is a condition in which tissue, most commonly that of the fingers, toes, ears, nose, and cheeks, freezes locally. The fluids between the cells of the tissue freeze, causing damage from the friction between the ice crystals and constriction of blood flow due to blood clots in the blood vessels of the affected regions. Frostbite is categorized in much the same way that burns are. Superficial frostbite, also known as frostnip, affects the outer layer of skin, causing it to appear red at first, then grey or white and waxy. The patient may experience numbness, tingling, or pain. Partial-thickness frostbite affects the tissues underneath the outer layer. The signs and symptoms for partial-thickness frostbite are much the same as for superficial frostbite, but the outer tissue may feel hard and frozen, while the underlying tissue may be softer. Full-thickness frostbite, occurring deeper into the muscle tissue of the patient, will also have similar signs and symptoms to those of superficial and partial-thickness frostbite, but the outer and underlying tissues will feel hard and frozen. It is difficult to determine the severity of frostbite until after it is rewarmed, but the presence of blisters within 24 to 48 hours of rewarming may indicate a partial-thickness injury, while the absence of blisters may indicate full-thickness frostbite. The treatment of frostbite is mostly the same across the board when it comes to severity. The patient should be brought to a warmer place, and wet clothes and jewelry should be removed. The affected area may be rewarmed if there is no chance of refreezing. This can be done by skin-to-skin contact or sticking fingers in the armpits, but rubbing is not appropriate as this can cause more damage. Do not expose the affected area to flame or rub snow on it. Ideally, the injured area should be rewarmed by submersion in 99°F – 102°F water. This is best done in a hospital setting since a constant warm water supply is required. Under-thawing can result in further damaged tissue. A flush of pink indicates that rewarming is taking place, and blisters may form. This process will be very painful. Pain management measures, such as Ibuprofen, are appropriate here. After the area is rewarmed, use extreme care when handling the area, place padding between fingers and toes and wrap and protect the rewarmed part. Encourage the patient not to use the injured body part. Quickly evacuate any person with frostbite, being gentle with the injured area. It is imperative to avoid rewarming if the chance of refreezing is high during evacuation. Preventative measures for frostbite are similar to those of hypothermia, with the addition of being especially careful to cover at-risk body parts and not touching frozen, metal objects. Frostbite is generally not life-threatening but can lead to loss of function and even amputation. Remember, it is easier and safer to stay warm than to treat a cold injury.

The final injury that will be addressed is a non-freezing cold injury, commonly known as trench foot. Trench foot is caused by prolonged exposure, usually in the feet, to cold, wet conditions, resulting in a lack of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the extremity. The symptoms of trench foot include swollen, cold, painful, white or gray, shiny or mottled feet. Pain, numbness, or tingling may occur. Capillary refill may be slowed. This can be tested by pressing fingers on the affected part and watching the color return to the area. This should take less than two seconds. In severe cases, blisters or gangrene and long-term disability may develop, as well as the need for amputation. If the patient experiences any numbness or tingling, be suspicious of developing a trench foot. Treatment of trench foot involves rewarming the affected area at room temperature, elevating the affected body part, and bed rest to avoid further trauma. Avoid trench foot by being very diligent in keeping your feet dry and warm. It is important to dry and change socks frequently, avoid over-tightening footwear, sleep with warm, dry feet and pay special attention to the needs of your feet, examining and massaging them at regular intervals. Sometimes getting wet, cold feet is unavoidable, but care should be taken to keep them as dry as possible by using terrain to your advantage and the proper equipment, including plenty of thick wool socks and galoshes or waterproof boots with gaiters. In general, non-freezing cold injuries do not require evacuation.

Although not exhaustive, this article will give the reader an informative introduction to understanding, recognizing, and treating some of the more common cold-related injuries that may occur during outings in the wilderness. The most important takeaway should be that preparedness and prevention are the preferred and safest methods for addressing these conditions. Proper research and training are encouraged before heading out into the wild. The author believes that it is incumbent upon everyone who works or plays outdoors to take a two-day wilderness first aid course to prepare for their next trip. Visit artossurvival.com for more details on WFA and survival courses in Northwest Montana, or find an instructor near you. Stay warm out there!

Patrick Norton
Owner/Lead Instructor
ARTOS Survival
Patrick@artossurvival.com
(510) 406-685
P.O. Box 1431 Eureka, MT 59917
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